Human Evolution is the evolutionary process where the transformation took place from Homo sapiens to Human beings. Homo sapiens appeared more than 4 00 000 to 40 000 years ago. The genus homo appeared more than 2 million years ago. Anthropologists found the existence of species before Homo sapiens around 65 million years ago. Human Evolution is a long process where ape or monkey-like structures were formed and later they as humans. Humans or hominids come under the category of monkeys, apes, and lemurs. Also, scientists have found that 98% of genes are identical to that of chimpanzees. Paleoanthropology is the study of humans during ancient with the evidence of fossils, tools and other signs of habitation.
Stages of Human Evolution
There are different stages of Human Evolution where transformation took millions of years for each evolution. Most commonly it is said that there are around six to seven stages for this evolutionary process. But Anthropologists have found that there are more than seven stages, and transformation took place before Homo sapiens. The book which first explains the evolutionary process is “On the origin of species” by Darwin in 1859. Various stages of Human Evolution happened, and they are, the first stage was “Prosimians” were around 65 million years ago. Prosimians were transformed to “Monkeys” about 40 million years ago. Later step by step evolution took place and which finally led to humans. The step by step evolution was Prehistoric apes (around 30 to 20 million years ago), Modern Apes (17 to 4 million years ago), Ramapithecus (14 to 8 million years ago), Australopithecus ramidus (4.4 million years ago), Australopithecus afarensis (4 to 2.8 millon years ago), Australopithecus africanus (3 to 2 million years ago), Australopithecus robustus (2 to 1.5 million years ago), Australopithecus boisei (1.8 million years ago), Homo habilis (2 to 1.5 million years ago), Homo erectus (1.6 million to 200 000 years ago), Homo sapiens (400 000 to 40 000 years ago), Homo sapiens sapiens (40 000 to present). These were the complete changes which took place millions of years ago. Under the species “homo” there are different stages of human evolution. Likewise, we can differentiate every step with the fossils, tools, etc.
Evidence of Human transformation proves that there are a number of stages of human evolution. Researcher’s studies about the changes in body size, skull development, locomotion, a way of living, paintings, etc. and give a clear description of the changes. There is some other evidence which proves the human evolutionary process is Behavioral Evidence, Tools, Genetical Evidence, Human fossils, Timeline interactives, Dating (Potassium-argon dating, Paleomagnetism., Biochronology, Molecular clock, etc.), clothing, Food, Shelter, Burials, Recording information, etc. When the environmental changes happen, changes happen in species too. Recording all these changes have taken a new view where all these changes were also due to variation in climatic changes. Another important evidence is the record of oxygen isotopes throughout the time period for all the time.